School of GeoSciences

School of GeoSciences

Geoffrey Boulton

[Boulton]

Regius Professor of Geology Emeritus and Senior Honorary Professorial Fellow

Research Interests

I am primarily interested in the behaviour of glaciers and ice sheets. The role they play in influencing the nature of climate change, the way in which they change through time, and their impact on other parts of the Earth system, particularly in eroding and transporting debris, changing the landscape, their impact on sub-surface rocks and fluids, and on the engineering properties of the Earth.

Current Research

a) Remote monitoring groundwater fluctuations and groundwater-channel relationships beneath an Icelandic glacier. Work that has involved Rebecca Lunn, Patrik Vidstrand and Segei Zatsepin, that currently involves remote, telemetric monitoring of groundwater levels in boreholes beneath, at and beyond the margin of Breidamerjurjökull in S.E. Iceland, together with occasional seasonal monitoring of the discharges of a major stream and seasonal streams that discharge from the central part of a subglacial groundwater catchment. Some relevant recent publications are:

  • Boulton, G.S. and Zatsepin, S. December 2006. Hydraulic impacts of glacier advance over a sediment bed. Journal of Glaciology, 52 (179), 31pp.
  • Boulton, G.S., Lunn, R., Vidstrand. P. and Zatsepin, S. March 2007. Subglacial drainage by groundwater-channel coupling, and the origin of esker systems: Part I – Glaciological observations,. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 1067-1090.
  • Boulton, G.S., Lunn, R., Vidstrand. P. and Zatsepin, S. March 2007. Subglacial drainage by groundwater-channel coupling, and the origin of esker systems: Part II – Theory and simulation of a modern system. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 1091-1105.

b) Drainage processes in former ice sheets and the formation of “tunnel valleys”. We are unable directly to observe the large-scale patterns of drainage beneath modern glaciers, but we can observe the evidence of large-scale patterns of drainage associated with former ice sheets. Magnus Hagdorn, Sergei Zatsepin, Bertrand Maillot and I have attempted to both establish some patterns and to explain them. We have argued that groundwater flow plays a fundamental role in determining the frequency and location of major drainage streams. Some relevant recent publications are:

  • Boulton, G.S. 2006. Ice sheets and their coupling with hydraulic and sedimentary processes, 10-29. In Knight, P. (ed) Glaciers and Environmental Change, Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Boulton, G.S., M. Hagdorn, M., Maillot, P.B. and Zatsepin, S. 2009. Drainage beneath ice sheets: groundwater–channel coupling, and the origin of esker systems from former ice sheets. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 621-638.
  • Boulton, G.S. 2010. Drainage pathways beneath ice sheets and their implications for ice sheet form and flow: the example of the British Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Quaternary Science 25(4), 483-500.

c) Subglacial Sediment processes and properties. Studying subglacial sedimentation is most productive when the results of remote monitoring of contemporary processes in modern glaciers are combined with direct observations of the properties of sediments produced by former glaciation. This complementary approaches are being pursued in Antarctica and Andorra: Antarctica. Giorgos Papageorgiou, Andy Smith and I are using the fact of repeated remote surveys over many years of the bed of the Rutford ice stream in West Antarctica, beneath 1 km of ice, to establish sediment properties and processes using active and passive seismic and radar. This is made particularly exciting because of the drumlins previously identified beneath the ice stream by Andy and his colleagues from the British Antarctic Survey. We have precisely mapped the location of the boundary between deforming and non-deforming sediments, how acoustic emissions reflect smooth deformation and stick-slip displacement respectively, defined a “deformation front” between the deforming and non-deforming areas, established the relationship between drumlins and sediment properties, and shown the drumlins to be multi-phase features. The hydraulic state of the system (see a) above) is clearly the key determinant of the dynamic of this system. Andorra. Valenti Turu and I have exploited the enormous amount of detailed geotechnical data from the heavily built-up floor of the Gran Valira to map consolidation patterns in the sequence of tills separated by fluvio- and limno-fluvial sediments that make up the thick sedimentary sequence on the valley floor. Coupling this with groundwater flow modelling shows how the deduced patterns of pre-consolidation can only be explained as a result of a series of glacial consolidation events, and that later events do not overprint consolidation patterns du to earlier events. Results also show the controlling influence of the geometry of the subglacial groundwater catchments.

Some emerging conclusions are contained in:
  • Boulton, G., Papageorgiou, G., Smith, A., King, E., Wright D., Doyle S. and Smith E. (in press 2014). Sediment dynamics and drumlin evolution beneath an Antarctic ice stream.
  • Papageorgiou, G., Boulton G. and Smith A. (in press 2014). Characterising subglacial sediments beneath an Antarctic ice stream using amplitude versus offset (AVO) inversion.
  • Turu I Michels, V., Boulton, G.S., Ros I Visus, X., Peña-Monné, J.L., Marti I Bono, C., Bordonau I Ibern, J., Serrano-Canadas, E., Sancho-Marcen, C., Constante-Orrios, A., Pous I Fabregas, J., Gonzalez-Trueba, J.J., Palomar i Molins, J., Herrero I Simon, R. and J.M. Garcia-Ruiz. 2007. Structures des grandes basins glaciaires dans le nord de la Péninsule Ibérique. Quaternaire, 18, 309-325.

Past Research Contributions (Quaternary Science Reviews 28 (2009) pp557-579

Past research contributions

1960s
  • First demonstration of the age of the last glaciation in Britain
  • Demonstration that single glacial episodes can produce multiple till sequences
1970s
  • Characterised the nature of glacial sedimentary sequences and their relation to the thermal regime of the parent glacier
  • Demonstrated rates of weathering in newly deglaciated terrain
  • First quantitative theories of glacial erosion and glacial deposition
  • Demonstrated the relationships between glacial sedimentary processes and geotechnical properties
  • First use of the land systems approach to characterize different glacial sedimentary systems
  • Application of modern glaciological theory to produce the first model simulation of a Pleistocene ice sheet
  • First direct measurement of stress and erosion rates at the base of an active glacier
  • First demonstration of shear deformation beneath glaciers and their implications for glacial sedimentation
1980s
  • Development of the structure of the southern Iceland coastal zone during the Holocene
  • Modern and Holocene patterns of sediment dispersal over the southern continental shelf of Iceland
  • Demonstrated the nature and rheology of sediment deformation beneath glaciers
  • Demonstrated the effect of deforming subglacial sediments on the form and dynamics of Pleistocene ice sheets
  • Theory of drumlin formation by sediment deformation based on observation of modern process and drumlin form and structure
  • Theory of erratic dispersal by glaciers
1990s
  • Demonstration of the architecture of glaciomarine sediments and their relation to patterns of glacio-isostatic crustal flexure
  • First recognition of the existence of major, large scale crossing lineation sets produced by Pleistocene ice sheets, and the dynamic ice sheet behaviour they reflect
  • Theory of erosion and deposition due to sediment deformation
  • Large scale structure of a modern push moraine and the role of porewater pressures
  • The sedimentary impact of a major recent surge on large scale sediment architecture
  • First recognition of the major significance of groundwater flow beneath glaciers and ice sheets, including the impact on geotechnics
2000s
  • Demonstration of the ubiquitous nature of ice streams in the last European ice sheet and their relations to pattern of advance and decay of the ice sheet
  • First direct measurements of groundwater flow and its impacts beneath an active glacier and measurements of the groundwater regime associated with esker-forming tunnels
  • Quantitative theory of formation of esker systems and demonstration of the fundamental role of groundwater flow in modern and Pleistocene glaciers
  • A new theory of ice sheet drainage and its role in ice sheet dynamics and stability

Science Policy Contributions

I have been involved in policy work for two decades, as a member of the Natural Environment Research Council and chair of its Earth Science & Technology and its Polar Science Boards, a member of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, the Prime Minister's Council for Science and Technology, chair of the Research Committee of the League of European Research Universities, General Secretary of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and currently as chair of the Royal Society's Science Policy Centre.

Reports of these bodies in which I was involved are:

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution
  • Transport and the Environment (1994)
  • Sustainable Use of Soils (1996)
  • Setting Environmental Standards (1998)
  • Energy: the Changing Climate (2000)
League of European Research Universities, position papers, as single or principal author
  • Growth, research intensive universities and the European Research Council (2005)
  • Competitiveness, research and the concept of a European Institute of Technology (2006)
  • Universities & Innovation: the challenge for Europe. (2006)
  • The Future of the European Research Area. (2007)
  • What are universities for? (with Colin Lucas) (2008)
  • Harvesting talent: strengthening research careers in Europe (2010)
UK Prime Ministers Council for Science and Technology
  • See website for reports - 2004-2011
The Royal Society (as report chair)
  • Devolution and science (1999)
  • The long-term management of radioactive waste: the work of CoRWM (2006)
  • Strategy options for the management of UK’s separated plutonium (2007)
  • Science as an open enterprise (2012)
The Royal Society of Edinburgh (as General Secretary who originated and managed its novel policy report series

Other Significant Positions Held

Current
  • President of the Scottish Association for Marine Science (2013- )
  • Chair of the Advisory Council of the University of Heidelberg: (2007- )
  • Member of the Strategic Council of the University of Geneva: (2009- )
  • Council of the Royal Society (2013- )
  • Chair of the Royal Society Science Policy Centre (2012- )
Formerly
  • At the University of Edinburgh, successively Head of the Department of Geology and Geophysics (1986-92), Provost of Science and Engineering (1992-98) and Vice Principal of the University (1998-2008).
  • Member of the UK Prime Ministers Council for Science and Technology (UK top-level S&T advisory committee - 2004-2011)
  • Member of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (1993-1999)
  • President of the Quaternary Research Association (1991-1994)
  • President of the Geological Society of Edinburgh (1992-95)
  • Member of Natural Environment Research Council, Chair of its Earth Science and Technology Board and of its Polar Science Board (1993-1998)
  • Royal Society: Council: 1995-97; Chair of its Earth Science and Astronomy Committee: 1994-1996; Research Grant Board: 1994-98; Chair of Hooke Committee for Royal Society Exhibitions: 1998-2000)
  • UK Representative to the International Union of Quaternary Science: (1997-2000)
  • UK Representative to the International Geological Congress (1998)
  • Chair of the Senate of the British University in Dubai (2005-2009)
  • Member of the Scottish Higher Education Funding Council and chairman of its Research Advisory Committee (1997-2003)
  • Chair of the Research Policy Committee of the League of European Research Universities (2002-2009)
  • Board of the University of Iceland Earth Science Institute (1999-2005)
  • Chair of comprehensive University reviews: University of Lund (2008); University College Dublin (2011)
  • Member of the independent group reviewing the so-called “Climategate” affair (2010)

Recognition

  • Officer of the Order of the British Empire - 2000
  • Commandeur de l’Ordre des Palmes Academiques - 2009
  • Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh - 1988
  • Fellow of the Royal Society – 1992
  • Honorary Fellow of the International Union of Quaternary Science - 2010
  • Kirk Bryan Award of the Geological Society of America - 1976
  • Lyell Fund of the Geological Society - 1980
  • Seligman Crystal of the International Glaciological Society - 2001
  • Lyell Medal of the Geological Society – 2006
  • Tedford Science Medal of the Society for Contemporary Scotland - 2006
  • Inaugural James Croll Medal of the Quaternary Research Association - 2011
  • Royal Gold Medal (the Founders Medal) of the Royal Geographical Society – 2014
  • UK Polar Medal - 2015
  • Honorary Doctor of Technology, Chalmers University – 2002
  • Doctor of Science honoris causa, Heidelberg University – 2008
  • Doctor of Science honoris causa, University of Birmingham – 2007
  • Doctor of Science honoris causa, University of Keele - 2007

Bibliography of peer reviewed articles

  • (omitting minor articles and reviews)
  • Boulton, G.S. and Worsley, P. 1965. Lake Weichselian glaciation in the Cheshire-Shropshire Basin. Nature, 207, No. 4, 998, 704-6.
  • Boulton G S. 1967. The development of a complex supraglacial moraine at the margin of Sorbreen, Ny Friesland, Vespitsbergen. Journal of Glaciology, 6, No. 47, 717-35.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1968. Flow tills and related deposits on some Vespitsbergen glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 7, No. 51, 391-412.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1970. On the origin and transport of englacial debris in Svalbard glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 9, No. 56, 231-29.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1970. On the deposition of subglacial and melt-out tills at the margins of certain Svalbard glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 9, No. 56, 231-41.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1971. Till genesis and fabric in Svalbard. (in Goldthwait ed.) Till: a Symposium. Ohio State University. (Reprinted in a volume of the series Benchmarks in Geology).
  • Boulton, G.S. 1972. Modern Arctic glaciers as depositional models for former ice sheets. Journal of the Geological Society, 128, 361-93.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1972. The role of thermal regime in glacial sedimentation. Institute of British Geographers. Special Publication, No. 4, 1-19.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Vivian, R. 1973. Underneath the Glaciers. Geographical Magazine, January, 311-16.*
  • Boulton, G.S. and Rhodes, M. 1974. Isostatic uplift and glacial history in northern Spitsbergen. Geological Magazine, 111, No. 6, 481-500.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Dent, D.L. 1974. Nature and rates of post-depositional changes in recently deposited till from south-east Iceland. Geografiska Annaler, 56, Ser. A, Nos. 3-4, 121-134
  • Boulton, G.S., Dent, D.L. and Morris, E.M. 1974. Subglacial shearing and crushing, and the role of water pressures in tills from southeast Iceland. Geografiska Annaler, 56, Ser. A, Nos. 3-4, 135-45.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1974. Processes and patterns of glacial erosion (In Coates, ed.) Glacial Geomorphology, New York State University. 41-87. (Awarded Kirk Bryan Award for the Geological Society of America, for a "distinguished contribution to geomorphology")
  • Boulton, G.S. 1974. Processes and patterns of subglacial sedimentation: a theoretical approach. (In Wright and Moseley, eds). Ice-Ages: Ancient and Modern. Seel House Press. 7-42.
  • Morland, L.W. and Boulton, G.S. 1975. Stress in an elastic hump: the effects of glacier flow over elastic bedrock. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A 344, 157-173.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1976. The origin of glacially fluted surfaces - observations and theory. Journal of Glaciology, 17, No. 76, 287-309.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1976. The development of geotechnical properties in glacial tills. (In Legget, ed.) Glacial Till. Royal Society of Canada, 292-303.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Paul, M.A. 1976. The influence of genetic processes on some geotechnical properties of glacial tills. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 9, p 159-94.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1976. The genesis of glacial tills - a framework for geotechnical interpretation. In: The Engineering Behaviour of Glacial Materials. Midland Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Society.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1976. A genetic classification of tills and criteria for distinguishing tills of different origin. In Till - Its Genesis and Diagenesis Adam Mickiewics University. Geografia, 12, p 65-80.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1977. A multiple till sequence formed by a late Devensian Welsh ice-cap: Glanllynnau, Gynedd. Cambria, 4, No. 1, 10-31.
  • Boulton, G.S., Jones, A.S., Clayton, K.M. and Kenning, M.J. 1977. A British ice sheet model and patterns of glacial erosion and deposition in Britain. (In Shotton, F.W. ed. British Quaternary Studies. Oxford University Press, 231-46.
  • Boulton, G.S., Dickson, J.H, Nichols, J., Nichols, M. and Short, S.K. 1976. Late Holocene glacier fluctuations and vegetation changes at Maktak Fjord Baffin Island, N.W.T., Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research, 8, No. 4, 343-56.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1978. Glacial history of the Spitsbergen archipelago and the problem of a Barents Shelf ice sheet. Boreas, 8, 31-57.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1978. Boulder shapes and grain-size distributions of debris as indicators of transport paths through a glacier and till genesis. Sedimentology, 25, 773-99.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Eyles, N. 1979. Sedimentation by valley glaciers; a model and genetic classification. In Schluchter, C. (ed.) Moraines and Varves. Balkema. 11-23.
  • Boulton, G.S., Morris, E.M., Armstrong, A.A. and Thomas, A. 1979. Direct measurement of stress at the base of a glacier. Journal of Glaciology, 22, No. 86, 3-24.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1979. Processes of glacier erosion on different substrata. Journal of Glaciology, 22, No. 88, 15-38.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Jones, A.S. 1979. Stability of temperate ice sheets resting on beds of deformable sediment. Journal of Glaciology, 24, 29-43.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1979. A model of Weichselian glacier variation in the North Atlantic regions. Boreas, 8, No. 3, 373-95.
  • Boulton, G.S., Chroston, P.N. and Jarvis, J. 1980. A marine seismic study of late Quaternary sedimentation and inferred glacier fluctuations along the coast of Western Inverness-shire, Scotland. Boreas, 10, 39-51.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Deynoux, 1981. Sedimentation in glacial environments and the identification of tills and tillites in ancient sedimentary sequences. Precambrian Research, 15, 397-422.
  • Boulton, G.S., Baldwin, C.T., Peacock, J.D. and others 1982. A glacio-issostatic facies model and amino-acid stratigraphy for Late Quaternary events in Spitsbergen and the Arctic. Nature, 298, No. 5873, 437-441.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1982. Subglacial processes and the development of glacial bedforms. In: Davidson-Arnott, R. and others ed. Research in Glacial, Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Systems. Guelph.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1983. Debris and isotopic sequences in the basal layers of polar ice sheets. In: Robin, G. De Q. (ed). The Climatic Record in Polar Ice Sheets, Cambridge University Press, 83-89.
  • Boulton, G.S., Harris, P.W.V. and Jarvis, J. 1983. The stratigraphy and structure of a coastal sediment wedge of glacial origin inferred from sparker measurements in glacial lake Jokulsarlon in south-eastern Iceland. Jokull, 32, 37-47.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1984. Development of a theoretical model of sediment dispersal by ice sheets. Prospecting in areas of glaciated terrain, 1984. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London. 213-224.
  • Morland, L.W., Smith, G.D. and Boulton, G.S. 1984. Basal sliding relations deduced from ice sheet data. Journal of Glaciology, 30, 131-39.
  • Boulton, G.S., Smith, G.D. and Morland, L.W. 1984. The reconstruction of fomer ice sheets and their mass balance characteristics using a non-linearly viscous flow model. Journal of Glaciology, 30, 140-52.
  • Boulton, G.S., Smith G.D., Jones, A.S. and Newsome, J. 1985. Glacial geology and glaciology of the last mid-latitude ice sheets. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 142, 447-74.
  • Boulton, G.S., van der Meer, J.J.M. and Cameraat, E. 1985. Side-entry systems in fiords: inputs to the fjords from their margins (inc. 3 maps). In Syvitski, J.P.M. 1984. Sedimentology of Arctic Fiords Experiment, 2. Canadian Data Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences, 28, 121-126.*
  • Bogadottir, H., Boulton, G.S., Tomasson, H. and Thors, K. 1986. The Structure of the sediments beneath Breidamerkursandur and the form of underlying bedrock. In Sigbjarnarson, G. (ed.) Iceland Coast and River Symposium, University of Iceland, 295-304.
  • Tomasson, H., Boulton, G.S. and Thors, K. 1986. Glacial and volcanic shore interaction. In Sigbjarnarson, G. (ed.) Iceland Coast and River Symposium, University of Iceland, 7-16.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1986. Push Moraines and glacier-contact fans in marine and terrestrial environments. Sedimentology, 33, 667-98.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Spring, U. 1986. Isotopic fractionation at the base of polar and sub-polar glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 23, 475-85.
  • Van der Meer, J.J.M. and Boulton, G.S. 1986. Hernieuwde belangstelling voor anderzoek van Stuwwallen. Geografisch Tijdschrift, 20, 236-44.
  • Boulton, G.S., Jarvis, J. and Chroston, P.N. 1987. Distribution of the major sediment masses in a glaciomarine fjord. Earth Surface Processes.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1986. A Paradigm shift in Glaciology? Nature, 322, 18.*
  • Boulton, G.S. 1986. Temperature of the ice sheets. Nature, 320, 214-215.*
  • Boulton, G.S. 1987. A theory of drumlin formation by subglacial deformation. In Rose, J. and Menzies, J. Drumlins, Balkema, Rotterdam, 25-80.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Hindmarsh, R.C.A. 1987. Deformation of subglacial sediments: rheology and geological consequences. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 9059-82.
  • Hindmarsh, R.C.A., Morland, L.W., Boulton, G.S. and Hutter, K. 1987. The unsteady flow of ice sheets: a parabolic problem with two moving boundaries. Geophysical & Astrophysical fluid dynamics, 39, 183-225.
  • Boulton, G.S., Thors, K. and Jarvis, J. (1988). Dispersal of glacially-derived sediment over part of the continental shelf of South Iceland. Marine Geology, 83, 193-223.
  • Zalasiewicz, J.A., Mathers, S.J., Hughes, M.J., Gibbard, P.L., Peglar, S.M., Harland, R., Nicholson, R.A., Boulton, G.S., Cambridge, P. and Weatherall, G.P. 1988. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments of the Red Crag and Norwich Crag Formations between Aldeburgh and Sizewell, Suffolk, England. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 322B, 221-72.
  • Hindmarsh, R.C.A., Boulton, G.S. and Hutter, K. 1989. Modes of operation of thermo-mechanically coupled ice sheets. Annals of Glaciology, 12, 57-69.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Van der Meer, J.J.M. 1989. Glaciotectonic phenomena in Spitsbergen. University of Amsterdam 185pp.*
  • Boulton, G.S. 1989. Future environmental changes: the case of glaciation. Safety Studies for Nuclear Waste, OECD, Paris.
  • Johnson, A.C., Cracknell, A.P., Vaughan, R.A. and Boulton, G.S. 1989. Identification of glacial lineations using satellite imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 10, 917-929.
  • Boulton, G.S. Time-dependent modelling of environmental change; the case of Quaternary glaciations. Symposium on Safety Assessment of Radioactiv Waste Repositories. OECD, Paris, Paris.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Clark, C.D. 1990. A highly mobile Laurentide ice sheet revealed by satellite images of glacial lineations. Nature, 346, 813-817.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Clark, C.D. 1990. The topology of large scale drift lineations and reconstruction of the time-space envelope in ice sheet evolution. Royal Society of Edinburgh Transactions,
  • Boulton, G.S. 1990. Sedimentary and sea level changes during glacial cycles and their control on glacimarine facies architecture. In Dowdeswell, J.A. and Scourse, J.D. (eds) 1990. Glacimarine Environments: Processes and Sediments. Geological Society Special Publication No 53, 15-52.
  • Hart, J.K., Hindmarsh, R.C.A. and Boulton G.S. 1990. Styles of subglacial glaciotectonic deformation within the context of the Anglian Ice-Sheet. Earth Surface Processes, 15, 227-41. (Award for the best paper in 1990 - Earth Surface Processes).
  • Kelly, R.J., Morland, L.W. and Boulton, G.S. 1990. Deep penetration of permafrost through saturated ground. Cold Regions Research and Technology, 18, 9-27.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1991. The Quaternary. In Duff, P.McL.D. and Smith, A,E. The Geology of England and Wales. Scottish Academic Press
  • Boulton, G.S., Peacock, J.D. and Sutherland, D. 1991. The Quaternary. In Craig G.Y. (ed.) The Geology of Scotland. 503-543. Scottish Academic Press.*
  • Thors, K. and Boulton, G.S. 1991. Deltaic and sublittoral sedimentation associated with rising sea level - late Quaternary examples from Northern Iceland. Marine Geology, 98, 99-112.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1991. Modelling the geological effects of glaciation in response to climatic change. In Goodess, C.M. and Palutikof, J.P. Future climate change and radioactive waste disposal. Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia
  • Hart, J.K. and Boulton, G.S. 1991. The glacial drifts of north-east Norfolk. In Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P.L. and Rose, J. Glacial deposits in Great Britain and Ireland. Balkema, Rotterdam. 233-243.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Payne, A. 1992. Reconstructing past and predicting future regional components of global change: the case of glaciation in Europe. In: Waste Disposal and Geology. International Geological Congress Proceedings Workshop 21, Tokyo. 51-134.
  • Bennett, R.M. and Boulton, G.S. 1993. A reinterpretation of Scottish "hummocky moraine" and its significance for the deglaciation of the Scottish Highlands during the Younger Dryas. Geological Magazine, 130, 301-318.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Dobbie, K.E. 1993. Consolidation of sediments by glaciers : relations between sediment geotechnics, glacier dynamics and subglacial groundwater flow. Journal of Glaciology, 39, 26-44.
  • Bennett, R.M. and Boulton, G.S. 1993. Deglaciation of the Younger Dryas or Loch Lomond Stadial ice-field in the northern Highlands, Scotland. Journal of Quaternary Science, 8, 133-45.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Payne, A. 1993. Simulation of the European ice sheet through the last glacial cycle and prediction of future glaciation. SKB Technical Report 93-14, 138pp.
  • Van der Meer, J.J.M. and Boulton, G.S. 1993. Geomorphological Map of McBeth-Itirbilung Fiords, Baffin Island. Geological Survey of Canada Open File Report.
  • Boulton G.S., T. Slot, K. Blessing, P. Glasbergen, T. Leijnse and K. van Gijssel. 1993. Deep circulation of groundwater in overpressured subglacial aquifers and its geological consequences. Quat. Sci. Rev. 12, 739-745.
  • Boulton, G.S. and A. Payne. 1994. Mid-latitude ice sheets through the last glacial cycle: glaciological and geological reconstructions. In Duplessy, J-C. ed. Long term climatic variations. NATO ASI Series , Vol. 122. Springer-Verlag, Stuttgart, 177-212.
  • Ericsson, L.O., Boulton, G.S. and Wallroth, T. 1994, Analysis of Long-Term Geological and Hydrogeological Changes in the Swedish Programme for Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste. OECD/NEA Workshop on Site Evaluation and Design of Experiments for Radioactive Waste Disposal. Paris, 19-21 Sept., 1994.
  • Punkari, M. and Boulton G.S., 1995, Skandinavian mannerjäätikön itäosan dynamiikka ja rena-asemat Nuoremman Dryaksen aikana. (The dynamics and marginal positions of the Scandinavian ice sheet in its eastern part during the Younger Dryas stadial). Terra 107: 1, pp. 3-14.
  • Boulton, G.S., Hulton, N., and Vautravers, M. 1995, Ice sheet models as tools for palaeoclimatic analysis: the European ice sheet through the last glacial cycle. Annals of Glaciology, 103-110.
  • Boulton, G.S., Caban, P.E. and van Gijssel, K. 1995. Groundwater flow beneath ice sheets : Part I - Large scale patterns. Quat. Sci, Rev., 14, pp. 545-562.
  • Boulton, G.S., Caban, P.E. and van Gijssel, K. 1995. Groundwater flow beneath ice sheets : Part II - Its impact on glacier tectonic structures and moraine formation. Quat. Sci. Rev., 14, pp. 563-587.
  • Van der Wateren, F.M. and Boulton, G.S. 1995. Structural Geology and Sedimentology of Push Moraines – the Holmströmbreen Push Moraine. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 54, 167 pp.
  • Boulton, G.S. 1996. Theory of glacial erosion, transport and deposition as a consequence of subglacial sediment deformation. Journal of Glaciology, 42(140), 43-62.
  • Boulton, G.S., Caban, P.E., van Gijssel, K., Leijnse, A., Punkari, M. and van Weert, F.H.A. 1996 The impact of glaciation on the groundwater regime of Northwest Europe. Global and Planetary Change.
  • Lloyd, J.M., Kroon, D., Boulton, G.S., Laban, C. and Fallick, A. 1996. Ice rafting history from the Spitsbergen ice cap over the last 200 kyr. Marine Geology, 131, 103-121.
  • Boulton, G.S., Van der Meer, J.J.M., Hart, J., Beets, D., Ruegg, G.H.J., Van der Wateren, F.M. and Jarvis, J. 1996. Till and moraine emplacement in a deforming bed surge - an example from a marine environment. Quaternary Science Reviews, 15, 961-987.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Curle, F. (eds) 1997. Simulation of the effects of long-term climatic change on groundwater flow and the safety of deep, geological sites fir disposal of nuclear waste. Nuclear Science and Technology, 97, 308 pp.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Dobbie, K.E. 1998. Slow flow of granular aggregates: the deformation of sediments beneath glaciers. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 2713-45.
  • Boulton, G.S., van der Meer, J.J.M., Beets, D.J., Hart, J.K. and Ruegg, G.H.J. 1999. The sedimentary and structural evolution of a recent push moraine complex: Holmströmbreen, Spitsbergen. Quaternary Science Reviews, 18, 339-71.
  • Boulton, G.S., Caban, P. and Hulton, N. 1999. Simulations of the Scandinavian ice sheet and its subsurface conditions. SKB Report, R-73, 88pp.
  • Dalgleish, A.N., Boulton, G.S. and Renshaw, E. 2000. The ice age cycle and deglaciation: an application of non-linear regression modeling. Quaternary Science Reviews 19, 687-97.
  • Boulton, G.S., Dobbie, K. and Zatsepin, S. 2001. Sediment deformation beneath glaciers and its coupling to the subglacial hydraulic system. Quaternary International, 86, 3-28.
  • Boulton, G.S., P.W. Dongelmans, M. Punkari and M.Broadgate. 2001. Paleoglaciology of an ice sheet through the Weichselian. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20(4), 591-625.
  • Boulton, G.S., Zatsepin, S. & Maillot, B. (2001). Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets, SKA Technical Report TR-0106, 53pp.
  • Boulton, G.S., M. Hagdorn and N.R.J. Hulton. 2003. Streaming flow in an ice sheet through a glacial cycle. Annals of Glaciology, 36, 117-128.
  • Boulton G., Chan T., Christiansson R., Ericsson L., Hartikainen J., Jensen M.R., Stanchell F.W. and Wallroth T. 2004. Thermo-hydro-mechanical impacts of glaciation and implications for deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. In -Stephansson O., Hudson J. A. and Jing L., editors. Geo-engineering book series, vol. 2: Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in geo-systems. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 299-304.
  • Boulton G. and Hartikainen J. 2004. Thermo -hydro-mechanical impacts of coupling between glaciers and permafrost. In -Stephansson O., Hudson J. A. and Jing L., editors. Geo-engineering book series, vol. 2: Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in geo-systems. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 293-298.
  • Chan T., Stanchell F.W., Wallroth, T., Hernelind, J. and Boulton, G. 2004. A finite-element study of potential coupled hydromechanical effects of glaciation on a crystalline rock mass. In -Stephansson O., Hudson J. A. and Jing L., editors. Geo-engineering book series, vol. 2: Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in geo-systems. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 287-292.
  • Chan T., Christiansson R., Boulton G.S., Ericsson L.O., Hartikainen J., Jensen M. R., Mas Ivars D., Stanchell F.W., Vidstrand P., and Wallroth T. DECOVALEX III BMT3/BENCHPAR WP4, the THM conditions during the dynamics of a glaciation cycle: A synthetic case based mainly on simplified data from the Whiteshell site. SKI report.
  • Boulton, G.S. 2005. Britain’s glacial past and its climatic future. Teaching Earth Sciences, 30(2), 14-18.
  • Chan T, Christiansson R, Boulton GS, et al. 2005. DECOVALEX III BMT3/BENCHPAR WP4: The thermo-hydro-mechanical responses to a glacial cycle and their potential implications for deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste in a fractured crystalline rock mass. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 42 (5-6): 805-827.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Hagdorn, M. December 2006. Glaciology of the British Isles Ice Sheet during the last glacial cycle: form, flow, streams and lobes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, 3359-3390.
  • Boulton, G.S. 2006. Ice sheets and their coupling with hydraulic and sedimentary processes, 10-29. In Knight, P. (ed) Glaciers and Environmental Change, Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Boulton, G.S. and Zatsepin, S. December 2006. Hydraulic impacts of glacier advance over a sediment bed. Journal of Glaciology, 52 (179), 31pp.
  • Boulton, G.S., Lunn, R., Vidstrand. P. and Zatsepin, S. March 2007. Subglacial drainage by groundwater-channel coupling, and the origin of esker systems: Part I – Glaciological observations,. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 1067-1090.
  • Boulton, G.S., Lunn, R., Vidstrand. P. and Zatsepin, S. March 2007. Subglacial drainage by groundwater-channel coupling, and the origin of esker systems: Part II – Theory and simulation of a modern system. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 1091-1105.
  • Turu I Michels, V., Boulton, G.S., Ros I Visus, X., Peña-Monné, J.L., Marti I Bono, C., Bordonau I Ibern, J., Serrano-Canadas, E., Sancho-Marcen, C., Constante-Orrios, A., Pous I Fabregas, J., Gonzalez-Trueba, J.J., Palomar i Molins, J., Herrero I Simon, R. and J.M. Garcia-Ruiz. 2007. Structures des grandes basins glaciaires dans le nord de la Péninsule Ibérique. Quaternaire, 18, 309-325.
  • Boulton, G., C. Curtis, C., Eyre, B., Gelletly, W., and Simpson, J. 2007. Strategy options for the UK’s separated plutonium. 2007. The Royal Society, policy report 24/07.
  • Boulton, G. and Lucas, C. 2008. What are universities for? League of European Research Universities (LERU) Advice Paper, July 2008.
  • Boulton, G.S., M. Hagdorn, M., Maillot, P.B. and Zatsepin, S. 2009. Drainage beneath ice sheets: groundwater–channel coupling, and the origin of esker systems from former ice sheets. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 621-638.
  • Boulton, G.S. 2010. Drainage pathways beneath ice sheets and their implications for ice sheet form and flow: the example of the British Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Quaternary Science 25(4), 483-500.
  • G. Boulton, M. Rawlins, P. Vallance, M. Walport 2011. Science as a Public Enterprise: the case for open data. The Lancet 377, 1633-1635.
  • Boulton, G.S. 2012. Reflections on a Quaternary litho-stratigraphy for Britain. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 123, 677-678.
  • Boulton, G., Campbell, P., Collins, B., Elias, P., Hall, W., Laurie. G., O’Neill, O., Rawlins, M., Thornton, J., Vallance, P. and Walport, M. 2012. Science as a Public Enterprise. The Royal Society Science Policy Centre report 02/12, 104pp.
  • G. Boulton, G. Papageorgiou, A. Smith, E. King, D. Wright S. Doyle and E. Smith. (in press 2014). Sediment dynamics and drumlin evolution beneath an Antarctic ice stream.
  • G. Papageorgiou, G. Boulton and A. Smith (in press 2014).Characterising subglacial sediments beneath and Antarctic ice stream using amplitude versus offset (AVO) inversion.