Dr Ioris is a human geography lecturer with a particular interest in the political aspects of the interconnections between nature and society. He has conducted extensive research in several countries, including Scotland, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Portugal, using water management as an entry point into the political ecology of the allocation, use and conservation of natural resources. Ioris has a long experience with policy-making and project management in the UK (at the Scottish Environment Protection Agency), in Chile (at the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean) and in Brazil (at the Ministry of the Environment). Main areas of research are related to the search for environmental justice in the urban and regional context and the multiple obstacles faced by marginalised communities to influence environmental decision-making.
Director of the MSc programme on Environment and Development
Environment and society
- Material and symbolic basis of nature production
- Values, meanings and cooperation around environmental problems
- Creativity and agency of marginalised communities and civil society organisationsPolitical economy of development and environmental regulation
- The questionable sustainability of plans, programmes and policies
- Controversies related to new legislation and regulation (e.g. water, agriculture, agribusiness, climate change, etc.)
- Effectiveness and contradictions of policy instruments (e.g. charges and incentives)
- Conflicts over the allocation, use and conservation of socionature
- Environmental justice and political ecology in rural, urban and peri-urban areas
- The changing geography of the state: between modernity(ies) and post-modernity(ies)
"Land Use Planning Challenges: The Gentrification of the Historical Centre of Quibdo, Choco (Colombia) and its Impact on the Sustainable Socio-economic Production", funded by the Newton-Caldas Fund. Role: Principal Investigator (PI). 2016-2018.
"Agroecological Business: Connecting Civil Society, SMEs and Consumers to Nature and the Land”, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). Role: Co-I. 2015-2016.
"Water Resources Management in the Hydrographic Region of the Guanabara Bay", funded by FAPERJ. Role: international PI. 2014-2016.
"Water as the Frontier of Agribusiness: Politico-Ecological and Socio-Economic Connections from Farms to Global Markets", funded by the Newton Fund via FAPESP-British Council. Role: UK PI. 2004-2015.
"Resource Sovereignty as a Strategy towards Securing Social Transformation, Environmental Sustainability and Human Well-being", funded by International Social Science Council (ISSC)/UNESCO. Role: research partner. 2014-2015.
"The Future of Our Food: Resilience, Security and Justice in a Global Context", funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). Role: Co-I. 2014-2015.
"Agribusiness, Water Resources and Institutional Complexity: Integrated Assessment Sustainability", funded by CAPES/Brazil through the Programme 'Science Without Borders'. In collaboration with various academics at the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT); case studies in the Cuiaba River Basin and in the Pantanal. 2013-2016.
"Natural Resource Conservation", one of the research areas of the Dot.Rural programme, funded by the EPSRC. Specific contribution to the sub-project Wiki-Rivers, which is focused on the communication of river flow information to the general public. 2011-2014. More details at: http://www.dotrural.ac.uk/nrc
"Forest Dependent Poor at the Agricultural Frontier: The complexity of Poverty and the Promise of Sustainable Forest Ecosystems in Amazonia", funded by Natural Environment Research Council, Economic and Social Research Council, Department for International Development - Ecosystems Services for Poverty Alleviation. 2010-2011.
"Water Politics and Regulatory Reforms in Lima, Peru", funded by The Leverhulme Trust. 2009-2010.
"Pantanal International Network", funded by The Leverhulme Trust. 2008-2012.
Ioris, A.A.R. (ed.). 2016. Agriculture, Environment and Development: International Perspectives on Water, Land and Politics. Palgrave Macmillan.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. Water, State and the City. Palgrave Macmillan. Book details here
Ioris, A.A.R. 2014. The Political Ecology of the State: The Basis and the Evolution of Environmental Statehood. Routledge: London. Book details here
Ioris, A.A.R. 2013. In the Counterflow of Water Resources: Water and Environment in Contemporary Brazil [Na Contracorrente dos Recursos Hidricos: Água e Ambiente no Brasil Contemporâneo]. CreateSpace.
Ioris, A.A.R. (ed.) 2012. Tropical Wetland Management: The South-American Pantanal and the International Experience. Ashgate: Farnham, Surrey. Book details here
Tazik, D., Ioris, A.A.R. and Collinsworth, S.R. (eds.). 2004. The Pantanal: Scientific and Institutional Challenges in Management of a Large and Complex Wetland Ecosystem. US Army Corps of Engineers: Washington, D.C. Book details here
Please feel free to email the author to request a copy of these publications (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Ioris, A.A.R. (forthcoming). Places of Agribusiness: Displacement, Replacement, and Misplacement in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Geographical Review. Early view at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gere.12222/full
Ioris, A.A.R. (forthcoming). Questionando a Pobreza nas Fronteiras do Desenvolvimento: Amazonia Brasileira e Boliviana [Contesting Poverty at the Frontiers of Development: In the Amazon region of Brazil and Bolivia]. Ruris.
Ioris, A.A.R. (forthcoming). Place-making at the Frontier of Brazilian Agribusiness. GeoJournal. Early view at http://rdcu.be/lzH5
Schulz, C., Martin-Ortega, J., Glenk, K. and Ioris, A.A.R. 2017. The Value Base of Water Governance: A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective. Ecological Economics, 131, 241-249.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2016. Rent of Agribusiness in the Amazon: A Case Study from Mato Grosso. Land Use Policy, 59, 456-466.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2016. The Paradox of Poverty in Rich Ecosystems: Impoverishment and Development in the Amazon of Brazil and Bolivia. The Geographical Journal, 182(2), 178-189.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2016. Water Scarcity and the Exclusionary City: The Struggle for Water Justice in Lima, Peru. Water International, 41(1), 125-139.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2016. The Politico-ecological Economy of Neoliberal Agribusiness: Displacement, Financialisation and Mystification. Area, 48(1), 84-91.
Arts, K., Ioris, A.A.R., Macleod, C., Han, X., Sripada, Y., Braga, J. and Van der Wal, R. 2016. Environmental Communication in the Information Age: Institutional Barriers and Opportunities in the Provision of River Data to the General Public. Environmental Science & Policy, 55, 47-53.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. Theorising State-Environment Relationships: Antinomies of Flexibility and Legitimacy. Progress in Human Geography, 39(2), 167-184.
Han, X., Ioris, A.A.R. and Lin, C. 2015. Web as Corpus Supporting Natural Language Generation for Online River Information Communication. WWW 2015 Companion – Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on World Wide Web. 18-22 May, Florence, Italy, 363-364.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. The Production of Poverty and the Poverty of Production in the Amazon: Reflections from those at the Sharp End of Development. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 26(4), 176-192.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. Latin America’s Large-Scale Urban Challenges: Development Failures and Public Service Inequalities in Lima, Peru. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 14(4), 1161-1186.
Arts, K., Ioris, A.A.R., Macleod, C., Han, X., Sripada, Y., Braga, J. and Van der Wal, R. 2015. Supply of Online Environmental Information to Unknown Demand: The Importance of Liability and Interpretation Related to Data from a National Network of River Level Sensors. Scottish Geographical Journal, Special Issue on Rural Digital Society, 131(3-4), 245-252.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. The Prospects of the Water Management Framework in the Douro, Portugal. European Urban and Regional Studies, 22(3), 316-328.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. Cracking the Nut of Agribusiness and Global Food Insecurity: In Search of a Critical Agenda of Research. Geoforum, 63, 1-4.
Schulz, C., Ioris, A.A.R., Martin-Ortega, J. and Glenk, K. 2015. Prospects for Payments for Ecosystem Services in the Brazilian Pantanal: A Scenario Analysis. Journal of Environment & Development, 24(1), 26-53.
Barbedo, J., Miguez, M., van der Horst, D., Carneiro, P., Amis, P. and Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. Policy Dimensions of Land-use Change in Peri-urban Floodplains: The Case of Paraty. Ecology and Society, 20(1): 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-07126-200105
Silva, J.B., Guerra, L.D., Ioris, A.A.R. and Gomes, R.A. 2015. Conflitos Sociopolíticos, Recursos Hídricos e Programa Um Milhão de Cisternas na Região Semiárida da Paraíba. Novos Cadernos NAEA, 18(2), 69-92.
Ioris, A.A.R., Irigaray, C.T. and Girard, P. 2014. Institutional Responses to Climate Change: Opportunities and Barriers for Adaptation in the Pantanal and the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Climatic Change, 127(1), 139-151.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2014. Environmental Governance at the Core of Statecraft: Unresolved Questions and Inbuilt Tensions. Geography Compass, 8/9, 641-652.
Han, X., Sripada, G.S., Macleod, K. and Ioris, A.A.R. 2014. Latent User Models for Online River Information Tailoring. Proceedings of the 8th International Natural Language Generation Conference, 133-137.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2014. The Urban Political Ecology of Post-industrial Scottish Towns: Examining Greengairs and Ravenscraig. Urban Studies, 51(8), 1576-1592.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2014. Approaches and Responses to Climate Change: Challenges for the Pantanal and the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Alternate Routes, 25, 119-145.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2013. The Value of Water Values: Departing from Geography towards an Interdisciplinary Debate. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 95(4), 323-337.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2013. The Adaptive Nature of the Neoliberal State and the State-led Neoliberalization of Nature: Unpacking the Political Economy of Water in Lima, Peru. New Political Economy, 18(6), 912-938.
Ioris, R.R. and Ioris, A.A.R. 2013. The Brazilian Developmentalist State in Historical Perspective: Revisiting the 1950s in Light of Today's Challenges. Journal of Iberian and Latin American Research, 19(1), 133-148.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2013. Rethinking Brazil's Pantanal Wetland: Beyond Narrow Development and Conservation Debates. The Journal of Environment & Development, 22(3), 239-260.
Ioris, R.R. and Ioris, A.A.R. 2013. Assessing Development and the Idea of Development in the 1950s in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Political Economy, 33(3), 411-416.
Reed, M.S., Fazey, I., Stringer, L.C., Raymond, C.M., Akhtar-Schuster, M., Begni, G., Bigas, H., Brehm, S., Briggs, J., Bryce, R., Buckmaster, S., Chanda, R., Davies, J., Diez, E., Essahli, W., Evely, A., Geeson, N., Hartmann, I., Holden, J., Hubacek, K., Ioris, A,A.R. etc. 2013. Knowledge Management for Land Degradation Monitoring and Assessment: An Analysis of Contemporary Thinking. Land Degradation and Development, 24(4), 307-322.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. Applying the Strategic-Relational Approach to Urban Political Ecology: The Water Management Problems of the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Antipode, 44(1), 122-150.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. The Neoliberalization of Water in Lima, Peru. Political Geography, 31(5), 266-278.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. The Positioned Construction of Water Values: Pluralism, Positionality and Praxis. Environmental Values, 21(2), 143-162.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. The Geography of Multiple Scarcities: Urban Development and Water Problems in Lima, Peru. Geoforum, 43(3), 612-622.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. The Persistent Water Problems of Lima, Peru: Neoliberalism, Institutional Failures and Social Inequalities. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 33(3), 335-350.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. The Political Geography of Environmental Regulation: Implementing the Water Framework Directive in the Douro River Basin, Portugal. Scottish Geographical Journal, 128(1), 1-23.
Macleod, K.C.J.A., Sripada, S.G., Ioris, A.A.R., Arts, K. and Van Der Wal, R. 2012. Communicating River Level Data and Information to Stakeholders with Different Interests: The Participative Development of an Interactive Online Service. iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, 33-40.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. Scarcity, Neoliberalism and the 'Water Business' in Lima, Peru. Human Geography, 5(2), 93-105.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. Enterprise and Politics: The Narrow Course of the Water Services of Lima, Peru. Estudios Interdisciplinarios de América Latina y el Caribe, 23(2), 97-122.
Whitfield, S., Geist, H. and Ioris, A.A.R. 2011. Deliberative Assessment in Complex Socio-Ecological Systems: Recommendations for Environmental Assessment in Drylands. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 183(1-4), 465-483.
Reed, M.S., Buenemann, M., Atlhopheng, J., Akhtar-Schuster, M., Bachmann, F., Bastin, G., Bigas, H., Chanda, R., Dougill, A.J., Essahli, W., Evely, A.C., Fleskens, L., Geeson, N., Glass, J.H., Hessel, R., Holden, J., Ioris, A.A.R. etc. 2011. Cross-scale Monitoring and Assessment of Land Degradation and Sustainable Land Management: A Methodological Framework for Knowledge Management. Land Degradation & Development, 22, 261-271.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2011. Values, Meanings and Positionalities: The Controversial Valuation of Water in Rio de Janeiro. Environment and Planning C, 29, 872-888.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2011. Food Security and Energy Security: Some Political Ecology Questions [Segurança Alimentar e Segurança Energética: Algumas Questões de Ecologia Política]. Cadernos do Desenvolvimento, 6(8), 355-375.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2010. The Political Nexus between Water and Economics in Brazil: A Critique of Recent Policy Reforms. Review of Radical Political Economics, 42(2), 231-250.
Fish, R.D., Ioris, A.A.R. and Watson, N.M. 2010. Integrating Water and Agricultural Management: Collaborative Governance for a Complex Policy Problem. Science of the Total Environment, 408(23), 5623-5630.
Ioris, A.A.R. and Costa, M.A.M. 2009. The Challenge to Revert Unsustainable Trends: Uneven Development and Water Degradation in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. Sustainability, 1, 133-160.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2009. Water Reforms in Brazil: Opportunities and Constraints. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 52(6), 813-832.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2009. The Limits of IWRM-Inspired Reforms in Brazil. Diversitates, 1(1), 1-17.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2009. Desenvolvimento Nacional e Gestão de Recursos Hídricos no Brasil [National Development and Water Resources Management in Brazil]. Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, 85, 23-41.
Ioris, A.A.R., Hunter, C. and Walker, S. 2008. The Development of Water Sustainability Indicators in Scotland and Brazil. Journal of Environmental Management, 88(4), 1190-1201.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2008. Águas que não Correm mais pro Mar [Waters that no Longer Flow to the Sea]. Interações, 9(1), 9-17.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2008. Water Policy Making in Scotland: Political Demands and Economic Pressures. Local Economy, 23(4), 319-324.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2008. Water Institutional Reforms in Scotland: Contested Objectives and Hidden Disputes. Water Alternatives, 1(2), 253-270.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2008. Regional Development, Nature Production and the Techno-bureaucratic Shortcut: The Douro River Catchment in Portugal. European Environment, 18(6), 345-358.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2008. The Limits of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Case Study of Brazil’s Paraíba do Sul River Basin. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, 4(2), 4-11.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2008. Os Limites Políticos de uma Reforma Incompleta: A Implementação da Lei dos Recursos Hídricos na Bacia do Paraíba do Sul [The Politicas Limits of an Incomplete Reform: The Implementation of the Water Law in the Paraíba do Sul River Basin]. Revista Brasileira de Estudos Urbanos e Regionais, 10(1), 61-85.
McCulloch, C.S. and Ioris, A.A.R. 2007. Putting politics into IWRM. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 9, 02981, 2007; SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU2007-A-02981.
Knox, J.W., Weatherhead, E.K and Ioris, A.A.R. 2007. Assessing Water Requirements for Irrigated Agriculture in Scotland. Water International, 32(1), 133-144.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2007. Amazônia, Água e Vida. Proposta, 114, 16-24. [Published in English as 'Amazon, Water and Life' In: Struggle for the Amazon, MST: São Paulo, pp. 13-22, 2009].
Ioris A.A.R. 2007. The Troubled Waters of Brazil: Nature Commodification and Social Exclusion. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 18(1), 28-50.
Ioris, A.A.R., Hunter, C. and Walker, S. 2006. A Framework of Indicators to Assess the Sustainability of Freshwater Systems. Physical Geography, 27(5), 396-410.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2006. Past and Present of Water Resources Management in Brazil. Finisterra, Vol. XLI, No. 82, 87-99.
Knox, J.W., Weatherhead, E.K and Ioris, A.A.R. 2005. Developing Abstraction Controls for Allocating Water to Irrigated Agriculture. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 7, 09255, SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU05-A-09255.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2005. Água, Cobrança e Commodity: A Geografia dos Recursos Hídricos no Brasil [Water, Charges and Commodity: The Geography of Water Resources in Brazil]. Revista Terra Livre, São Paulo, 25, 121-137.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2004. Virtual Water in an Empty Glass: The Geographical Complexities behind Water Scarcity. Water International. 29(1), 119-121.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2001. Water Resources Development in the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil): Conflicts and Management Perspectives. Water International. 26(1), 24-39.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2017. Water and the (All Too Easy) Promised City: A Critique of Urban Water Governance. In: Urban Water Trajectories. Bell, S., Allen, A., Hofmann, P. and Teh, T.-H. (eds.). Springer. pp. 179-192.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2016. “Practical Authority: Agency and Institutional Change in Brazilian Water Politics” by Rebecca Neaera Abers and Margaret E. Keck, OUP, 2013. Hispanic American Historical Review, 96(4), 769-771.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2016. Introduction: Underscoring Agribusiness Failures, Environmental Controversies, and Growing Food Uncertainties. In: Agriculture, Environment and Development: International Perspectives on Water, Land and Politics. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke. pp. 1-31.
Fish, R.D., Ioris, A.A.R. and Watson, N.M. 2016. Water Governance and Agricultural Management: Collaboratively Dealing with Complex Policy Problems. In: Agriculture, Environment and Development: International Perspectives on Water, Land and Politics. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke. pp. 33-58.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2016. Controversial Frontiers of Agricultural Development and Environmental Change. In: Agriculture, Environment and Development: International Perspectives on Water, Land and Politics. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke. pp. 221-250.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. Water Services in Lima, Peru: Understanding the Linkages between Urban Development, Social Inequality and Water. In: Water and Cities in Latin America: Challenges for Sustainable Development. Aguilar-Barajas, I., Mahlknecht, J., Kaledin, J., Kjellén, M. and Mejía-Betancourt, A. (eds.). Earthscan: London and New York. pp. 89-101.
Costa, M.A.M. and Ioris, A.A.R. 2015. Até a Última Gota: Complexidade Hidrossocial e Ecologia Política da Água na Baixada Fluminense (RJ, Brasil) [To the Last Drop: Hydrosocial Complexity and Political Ecology of Water in Baixada Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. In: O Direito à Água como Política Pública na América Latina: Uma Exploração Teórica e Empírica. Castro, J.E., Heller, L. and Morais, M.P. (eds.). Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA): Brasilia. pp. 109-128.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2013. The Politics of Climate Change and Grassroots Demands. In: World Social Science Report. UNESCO: Paris. pp. 472-475.
Navarrete, J.M., Ioris, A.A.R. and Granados, J. 2012. Water Sustainability and Politics: Examples from Latin America and Implications for Agroecology. In: Integrating Agriculture, Conservation and Ecotourism: Societal Influences. Campbell, W.B. and Ortíz, S.L. (eds.) Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. pp. 227-277.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. Reassessing Development: Pantanal’s History, Dilemmas and Prospects. In: Tropical Wetland Management: The South-American Pantanal and the International Experience. Ioris, A.A.R. (ed). Ashgate: Farnham, Surrey. pp. 199-222.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2012. Assessing the Water Sustainability Trends in the Sub-tropics: The Pardo Catchment in Southern Brazil. In: Sustainable Water Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, and Case Studies in Brazil. Volume 4. Biblio, C., Hensel, O. and Selbach, J. (eds.). Unipampa/Unikassel/PGCUIt/UFMA: Jaguarão. pp. 735-766.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2011. Review of 'Global Political Ecology' edited by Peet, R., Robbins, P. and Watts, M.J. Routledge, London and New York, 2011. Scottish Geographical Journal, 127(3), 253-254.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2011. Bringing Water Regulation into the 21st Century: The Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Iberian Peninsula. In: Current Issues of Water Management. Uhlig, U. (ed.). InTech: Rijeka, Croatia. pp. 179-206. Available at http://www.intechopen.com/books/show/title/current-issues-of-water-management
Ioris, A.A.R. 2010. Expanding the Hydroinformatics Agenda: Information and Inequality behind Water Problems. In: Handbook of Research on Hydroinformatics: Technologies, Theories and Applications. Gasmelseid, T. (ed.). IGI Global: Hershey PA. pp. 1-21.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2010. Da Foz às Nascentes: Análise Histórica e Apropriação Econômica dos Recursos Hídricos no Brasil [From the Mouth to the Headwaters: Historical Analysis and Economic Appropriation of Water Resources in Brazil]. In: Capitalismo Globalizado e Recursos Territoriais. Lamparina: Rio de Janeiro. pp. 211-255.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2009. Water Policy Reforms in Brazil: The Contradiction between Economic Approaches and Socionatural Needs. Social Development (Social Issues, Justice and Status Series). Nova Science Publishers: Hauppauge, NY, pp. 133-148.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2009. Review of 'O Que é Justiça Ambiental' [What is Environmental Justice?] by Henri Acselrad, Cecília Campello Amaral Mello e Gustavo das Neves Bezerra, Editora Garamond. Ambiente & Sociedade, 12(2), 389-392.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2008. A Flow of Problems. Scottish Left Review, 44, 22-23.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2005. Review of 'Managing Water Resources: Past and Present' edited by Julie Trottier and Paul Slack. Linacre Lectures Series, Oxford University Press, 2004. Scottish Geographical Journal, 121(4), 422-424.
Ioris, A.A.R. 2004. Conflicts and Contradictions on the Occupation of the Pantanal Space. In: The Pantanal: Scientific and Institutional Challenges in Management of a Large and Complex Wetland Ecosystem. Tazik, D., Ioris, A.A.R. and Collinsworth, S.R. (eds.). US Army Corps of Engineers: Washington, D.C. pp. 26-38.